Law No.26/2008/QH12 dated November 28, 2008 of the National Assembly on Enforcement of Civil Judgments
Pursuant to Articles 103 and 106 of the 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, which was amended and supplemented under Resolution No. 51/2001/QH10 of December 25, 2004, of the Xth National Assembly, the 10th session;
the Law on Enforcement of Civil Judgments, which was passed on November 14, 2008, by the XIIth National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam at its 4th session.
President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
NGUYEN MINH TRIET
Article 1. Scope of regulation
This Law prescribes principles, order and procedures for enforcement of civil
judgments and rulings and fines, confiscation of assets, retrospective collection of illicitly earned money and assets, handling of material evidence and assets, court fees and civil rulings involved in criminal judgments and rulings, property parts of administrative judgments and rulings of courts, decisions on settlement of competition cases related to assets of judgment debtors by the Council for settlement of competition cases, and awards of commercial arbitrations (below collectively referred to as judgments and rulings); the system of civil judgment enforcement organizations and enforcers; rights and obligations of judgment creditors and judgment debtors, and persons with related interests and obligations; tasks and powers of agencies, organizations and individuals in civil judgment enforcement activities.
Article 2. Judgments and rulings to be enforced Judgments and rulings to be enforced under this Law include: 1. Judgments and rulings defined in Article 1 of this Law and having taken legal effect:
a/ Judgments and rulings or parts of judgments and rulings of first-instance courts against which are not appealed or protested against according to appellate procedures;
b/ Judgments and rulings of courts of appeal; c/ Cassation or reopening trial rulings of courts;
d/ Foreign courts’ civil judgments and rulings, and foreign arbitral awards, which have been recognized and permitted for enforcement in Vietnam by Vietnamese courts;
e/ Competition case settlement decisions of the Council for settlement of competition cases, which are not voluntarily executed by involved parties within 30 days after they take legal effect or against which no lawsuits are
initiated at court;
f/ Awards of commercial arbitrations;
2. The following judgments and rulings of first-instance courts shall be enforced immediately though they may be appealed or protested against: a/ Judgments and rulings on alimony, salary or wage payment, severance allowance, job-loss allowance, working capacity loss allowance or compensation for loss of life or damage to health or mental harm, or reemployment of dismissed employees;
b/ Rulings on application of provisional urgent measures. Article 3. Interpretation of terms
In this Law, the terms below are construed as follows: 1. Involved parties include judgment creditor and judgment debtor. 2. Judgment creditor means an individual, agency or organization that enjoys rights and interests in an enforced judgment or ruling.
3. Judgment debtor means an individual, agency or organization that shall fulfill obligations in an enforced judgment or ruling.
4. Person with related rights and obligations means an individual, agency or organization that has rights and obligations directly related to the exercise of the right and performance of the obligation to execute a judgment by involved parties.
5. The statute of limitations for requesting judgment enforcement means a time limit for a judgment creditor or judgment debtor to request a civil judgment enforcement agency to organize judgment enforcement. Past this time limit, they will no longer have the right to request judgment enforcement under this Law.
6. To have conditions for judgment execution means that a judgment debtor has assets and incomes for fulfilling his/her property obligation, and performs the judgment-executing obligation by himself/herself or through another person.
7. Judgment enforcement charge means a sum of money payable by a judgment creditor upon receipt of money and assets under a judgment or ruling.
8. Expenses for coercive judgment enforcement means expenses for organizing coercive enforcement to be borne by the judgment debtor, unless it is prescribed by law that these expenses shall be paid by the judgment creditor or covered by the state budget.
Article 4. Assurance of effect of judgments and rulings Judgments and rulings defined in Article 2 of this Law shall be respected by agencies, organizations and all citizens.
Concerned individuals, agencies and organizations shall, within the ambit of their respective responsibilities, strictly abide by judgments and rulings and take responsibility before law for the enforcement thereof. Article 5. Assurance of rights and legitimate interests of involved parties and persons with related rights and obligations
In the course of judgment enforcement, rights and legitimate interests of involved parties and persons with related rights and obligations shall be respected and protected by law.
Article 6. Judgment enforcement agreements
1. Involved parties may reach agreement on judgment enforcement, provided that agreement does not violate prohibitions prescribed by law and is not contrary to social morality. Outcomes of judgment enforcement under agreements will be recognized.
At the request of involved parties, enforcers shall witness the judgment enforcement agreement.
2. In case involved parties fail to strictly comply with their agreement, they may request a civil judgment enforcement agency to perform the unperformed part of their obligations under the judgment or ruling. Article 7. Right to request judgment enforcement Judgment creditors and judgment debtors may base themselves on judgments or rulings to request civil judgment enforcement agencies to organize the judgment enforcement.
Article 8. Spoken and written languages in civil judgment enforcement 1. The spoken and written language officially used in civil judgment enforcement is Vietnamese.
Involved parties may use spoken and written languages of their nationalities but must have an interpreter. For involved parties who are ethnic minority people and do not speak Vietnamese, civil judgment enforcement agencies shall employ an interpreter.
2. Interpreters shall interpret or translate speeches or writings by involved parties in a verbatim, truthful and objective manner and shall be held responsible before law for intentionally incorrect interpretation or translation.
Article 9. Voluntary execution and coercive enforcement of judgments 1. The State encourages involved parties to voluntarily execute judgments. 2. Judgment debtors who have conditions for judgment execution but fail to voluntarily execute judgments will be subject to coercive enforcement of judgments under this Law.
Article 10. Responsibility to pay compensations for damage Agencies, organizations and individuals that violate this Law and cause damage shall pay compensations therefor under law.
Article 11. Responsibility of agencies, organizations and individuals to collaborate with civil judgment enforcement agencies and enforcers 1. Within the ambit of their tasks, powers and duties, agencies, organizations and individuals shall collaborate with civil judgment enforcement agencies in enforcing judgments.
2. Concerned agencies, organizations and individuals shall comply with requests of civil judgment enforcement agencies and enforcers under this Law.
All acts of obstructing or illegally intervening in activities of civil judgment enforcement agencies or enforcers shall be handled under law. Article 12. Supervision and inspection of judgment enforcement 1. The National Assembly, People’s Councils and the Vietnam Fatherland Front shall supervise the operation of civil judgment enforcement agencies and other state agencies in enforcing civil judgments under law. 2. People’s procuracies at all levels shall, within the ambit of their tasks and powers, inspect the observance of judgment enforcement law by civil judgment enforcement agencies, enforcers and agencies, organizations and individuals involved in judgment enforcement in order to ensure judgment enforcement is conducted in a prompt, adequate and lawful manner.
THE ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM OF CIVIL JUDGMENT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AND ENFORCERS
Article 13. The organizational system of civil judgment enforcement agencies
The organizational system of civil judgment enforcement agencies consists of:
1. Civil judgment enforcement management agencies: a/ The civil judgment enforcement management agency of the Justice Ministry;
b/ The civil judgment enforcement management agency of the Defense Ministry.
2. Civil judgment enforcement agencies:
a/ Civil judgment enforcement agencies of provinces and centrally run cities (below collectively referred to as provincial-level civil judgment enforcement agencies);
b/ Civil judgment enforcement agencies of rural districts, urban districts, towns or provincial cities (below collectively referred to as district-level civil judgment enforcement agencies);
c/ Judgment enforcement agencies of military zones or equivalent levels (below collectively referred to as military zone-level judgment enforcement agencies).
The Government shall specify tasks and powers of civil judgment enforcement management agencies; and names and specific organizational structures of civil judgment enforcement agencies.
Article 14. Tasks and powers of provincial-level civil judgment enforcement agencies
1. To manage and direct civil judgment enforcement in their respective provinces or centrally run cities, covering:
a/ Assuring the uniform application of law on civil judgment enforcement; b/ Directing civil judgment enforcement activities of district-level civil judgment enforcement agencies; providing professional guidance on civil judgment enforcement to enforcers and other civil servants of civil judgment enforcement agencies in their localities;
c/ Inspecting civil judgment enforcement activities of district-level civil judgment enforcement agencies;
d/ Reviewing the practical civil judgment enforcement work; making statistics and reports on civil judgment enforcement work under the guidance of the civil judgment enforcement management agency of the Justice Ministry.
2. To directly organize enforcement of judgments and rulings under Article 35 of this Law.
3. To compile dossiers of request for exemption from or reduction of the obligation to execute civil judgments; to coordinate with police offices in compiling dossiers of request for remission or commutation of imprisonment sentences and amnesty for persons obliged to execute civil judgments who are serving imprisonment sentences.
4. To settle complaints and denunciations about civil judgment enforcement under their competence under this Law.
5. To manage civil servants, material foundations, funding sources and equipment for operation of local civil judgment enforcement agencies under the guidance and direction of the civil judgment enforcement management agency of the Justice Ministry.
6. To assist provincial-level People’s Committees in performing their responsibilities and exercising their powers under Clauses 1 and 2, Article 173 of this Law.
7. To report on civil judgment enforcement to provincial-level People’s Councils upon request.
Article 15. Tasks and powers of military zone-level judgment enforcement agencies upon request.
1. To directly organize the enforcement of judgments and rulings under Article 35 of this Law.
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Law No.26/2008/QH12 dated November 28, 2008 of the National Assembly on Enforcement of Civil Judgments
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